Many proteins lose enzymatic activity in harsh environments, such as non-optimal pH or temperature, or exposure to organic solvents. This invention is based on the discovery that by attaching certain proteins to single-walled carbon nanotubes ("SWNT"), protein function under such harsh conditions can be dramatically improved. Two enzymes which were stabilized in this manner, subtilisin carlsberg and soybean peroxidase, were found to be orders of magnitude more active than the native state enzyme when exposed to severe environments. Additionally, the enzymes attached to the SWNTs w

Enzyme immobilization for electroosmotic flow

While there have been rapid advances in microscale device fabrication, microfluidics, and lab-on-a-chip technology, there is still a need to immobilize biomolecules (especially proteins) on a microfluidics apparatus, while maintaining high biological activity and electroosmotic flow (EOF) capability. This invention relates to the discovery that certain polymers containing both ionic and hydrophobic groups can be reproducibly adhered to microfluidic channels and can be used to simulataneously immobilize biocatalysts with good catalytic activity while supporting EOF.

Biocatalytic Solgel Microarrays

Chemicals affect living organisms in both positive and negative ways, depending on the chemical. Chemicals can have different effects on different organisms, for example, potential drugs that work in animals studies but fail in human trials. A major reason to these differences is that species, individuals, and organs all have different kinds and amounts of enzymes. There is a need for a technology to rapidly, effectively, and economically test the heatlh effects of chemicals.