Carbon nanotubes are a nanostructured material that promises to have a wide range of applications. However, the present techniques used to build nanotube architectures have several deficiencies, such as the inability to precisely and controllably align the nanotubes. This invention is a novel and powerful method to assemble carbon nanotubes on planar substrates to build and control highly organized 1-to-3D architectures.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been used for decades to make thin films, fibers, and bulk materials used in a range of applications. Modifications of CVD, for example, plasma enhanced CVD, have been used to create unique structures by varying process parameters. This technology results in particles with the structure of an inverted truncated right circular cone that could serve as interconnects or as mini energy storage units for solar cells. It could also be used as filler particles in polymer composites, where their unique structure could provide advantageous properties.
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have captured the attention of materials scientists and technologists due to their unique one-dimensional structure by virtue of which they acquire superior electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Current methods for CNT growth on substrates have their drawbacks. Vertically aligned CNT growth on metallic substrates requires catalyst islands on the substrate, which limits its ultimate application. Aligned CNT growth is a complicated, multi-step process and requires a brittle substrate, such as indium tin oxide.
The use of fillers in both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers has been common. The practice of filling polymers is motivated both by cost reduction and by the need to obtain altered or enhanced properties. Nanostructured dielectric materials have demonstrated advantages over micro-filled polymer dielectrics. However, this is a need to improve these nanocomposites such that they can be adapted for use in such situations as electrical insulation for low or medium voltage cables.
Polymers play an important role in electrical insulating and field grading technology because of their high electrical strength, ease of fabrication, low cost and simple maintenance. Conventionally, additives have been mixed into polymer matrices to improve their resistance to degradation, to modify mechanical and thermomechanical properties, and to improve electrical properties such as high-field stability. However, concentional additives have a negative effect on electrical properties.
Living polymerization is a method by which polymers having a narrow molecular weight distribution may be obtained. Block copolymers may also be synthesized using the method. Block copolymers may display improved mechanical andor chemical properties over corresponding random copolymers. One promising method for free radical polymerization with living characteristics is reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization.
Conventional technologies used for the generation of solar power include building-integrated flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) systems, and stand-alone concentrating PV systems that are removed from the location of power application. Although these technologies work, widespread adoption of them for general use has been hampered by a number of impediments, such as the large amount of silicon needed for flat-plate systems, the cost and appearance of the stand-alone systems, and the relatively weak solar-to-electric operating conversaion efficiencies of both systems.
Semiconductor nanoparticles (also called quantum dots or nanocrystals) are generally used a lasing medium in a laser, as fluorescent tags in biological testing methods, and as electronics devices. However, these nanoparticles traditionally have high production costs and the methods used for synthesis are extremely toxic at high temperatures, posing safety risks during mass production. Additionally, it has been difficult to form nanoparticles of uniform size. This invention is directed to semiconductor nanoparticles having an elementally passivated surface.
Isolating individual components of nanoscale architectures comprised of thin films or nanostructures, without significantly impacting their functionalities, is a critical challenge in micro- and nano-scale device fabrication. One example that illustrates this challenge is seen in Cu interconnect structures for nanometer devices. These devices use interfacial barrier nanolayers to isolate copper layers from dielectric layers.
Displacement chromatography has attracted signifcant attention as a powerful technique for the purification of bioherapeutic proteins and oligunucleotides. Displacement chromatography enables simultaneous concentration and purification in a single step, which is significant in the purifcation of biopharmaceuticals. However, the major obstacle in implementing this technique is the lack of a sufficient diversity of appropriate displace candidates that are applicable across a wide spectrum of bioseparation demands.