Enhanced Step Coverage of Thin Films on Patterned Substrates by Oblique Angle Physical Vapor Deposition

For many decades, dry processing techniques, such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), have played a dominant role in integrated circuit metallization processes. During microelectronic device fabrication, films are often deposited on non-planar surfaces. The surface topography that wafers exhibit at various steps in the fabrication process arise from patterned features related to, for example, trenches andor vias.